22 - Navigation Bridge Visibility
design to minimum specifications ensuring good visibility.
are for ships of 55m or more in
length built on or after 1 July 1998.
ships to meet specifications as closely as possible but no structural
discretion for ships of unconventional design.
Ships of not less than 55 m in length, as defined in regulation
2.4, constructed on or after 1 July 1998, shall meet
the following requirements:
view of the sea surface from the conning position shall
not be obscured by more than two ship lengths, or 500
m, whichever is the less, forward of the bow to 10°
on either side under all conditions of draught, trim
and deck cargo;
blind sector caused by cargo, cargo gear or other obstructions
outside of the wheelhouse forward of the beam which
obstructs the view of the sea surface as seen from the
conning position, shall exceed 10°. The total arc
of blind sectors shall not exceed 20°. The clear
sectors between blind sectors shall be at least 5°.
However, in the view described in .1, each individual
blind sector shall not exceed 5°;
horizontal field of vision from the conning position
shall extend over an arc of not less than 225°,
that is from right ahead to not less than 22.5°,
abaft the beam on either side of the ship;
each bridge wing the horizontal field of vision shall
extend over an arc at least 225°, that is from at
least 45° on the opposite bow through right ahead
and then from right ahead to right astern through 180°
on the same side of the ship;
the main steering position the horizontal field of vision
shall extend over an arc from right ahead to at least
60° on each side of the ship;
ship's side shall be visible from the bridge wing;
height of the lower edge of the navigation bridge front
windows above the bridge deck shall be kept as low as
possible. In no case shall the lower edge present an
obstruction to the forward view as described in this
upper edge of the navigation bridge front windows shall
allow a forward view of the horizon, for a person with
a height of eye of 1,800 mm above the bridge deck at
the conning position, when the ship is pitching in heavy
seas. The Administration, if satisfied that a 1,800
mm height of eye is unreasonable and impractical, may
allow reduction of the height of eye but not less than
shall meet the following requirements:
help avoid reflections, the bridge front windows
shall be inclined from the vertical plane top
out, at an angle of not less than 10° and
not more than 25°.
between navigation bridge windows shall be kept
to a minimum and not be installed immediately
forward of any work station.
and tinted windows shall not be fitted.
clear view through at least two of the navigation
bridge front windows and, depending on the bridge
configuration, an additional number of clear-view
windows shall be provided at all times, regardless
of weather conditions.
constructed before 1 July 1998 shall, where practicable, meet
the requirements of paragraphs 1.1 and 1.2. However, structural
alterations or additional equipment need not be required.
ships of unconventional design which, in the opinion of the
Administration, cannot comply with this regulation, arrangements
shall be provided to achieve a level of visibility that is
as near as practical to that prescribed in this regulation.
Notwithstanding the requirements of paragraphs 1.1, 1.3, 1.4 and 1.5, ballast water
exchange may be undertaken provided that:
master has determined that it is safe to do so and takes into consideration any increased
blind sectors or reduced horizontal fields of vision resulting from the operation to ensure
that a proper lookout is maintained at all times;
||the operation is
conducted in accordance with the ship's ballast water management plan, taking into account the recommendations
on ballast water exchange adopted by the Organization; and
and termination of the operation are recorded in the ship's record of navigational activities pursuant
to regulation 28.|
Regulation 22 applies to all UK ships built on or after
1 July 1998, over 55m* in length. "Length" is
defined in Regulation 2.4 as length overall.
Ships built before this date must comply with 1.1 and 1.2
as far as practicable, but no structural alterations will
55m minimum length and the definition of "length"
as being length overall came into force on 1 July 2006 [IMO
Resolution MSC 142(77)]
purpose of the Regulation is to ensure that ships are designed
with adequate visibility from navigation bridges. Designers
and builders of ships need therefore to take account of the
Regulation during the design process for new buildings or
where the ship undergoes structural modifications or where
a change in mode of operation is planned e.g. dual capability
of navigating bow or stern first.
the purposes of the Regulation, the meaning of the term 'conning
position' is taken to be the same as that defined in BS EN
ISO 8468:1995 "Ship's Bridge Layout and Equipment - Requirements
and Guidelines" i.e. a place on the bridge with a commanding
view and which is used by navigators when commanding, manoeuvring
and controlling a ship.
SOLAS vessels, of 55 metres and more in overall length, flagging
in to the UK register, the MCA Customer Services Manager will
need to be satisfied that the requirements for a view of the
sea surface from the conning position (Reg.22.1.1) and the
extent of blind sectors caused by cargo, cargo gear or other
obstructions outside of the wheelhouse forward of the beam
(Reg.22.1.2) comply as close as reasonably practicable without
the need to require structural alterations or the supply of
prohibits the use of polarised and tinted windows on the navigation
bridge. In the case of United Kingdom registered ships, only
clear, toughened glass is permitted.
Owners of existing tonnage should be aware of the implications
of a vessel fitted with tinted bridge windows being involved
in an accident and the question of a proper lookout being
1.9.4 requires a clear view regardless of weather conditions
through at least two windows. Further guidance on the use
of windscreen wipers etc is given in ISO 8468 (Ship's Bridge
Layout and Associated Equipment - Requirements and Guidelines)
3 covers ships of "unconventional design". This
should be taken to mean ships of such a design that fixed
structures or equipment, or the position of the bridge, renders
it impossible to comply fully with the provisions of this
Regulation. In such cases the MCA must be consulted in order
to assess the alternative arrangements which have to be provided
to comply with this paragraph.
special circumstances, such as moving exceptional cargoes,
the MCA should be consulted regarding navigation bridge visibility
should be noted that pilots and port authorities, when exercising
their normal duties, are required to report to the MCA any
ship with deficiencies which may prejudice the safe navigation
of the ship or which poses an unreasonable threat of harm
to the marine environment. This would include non-compliance
with the requirements of this Regulation
SOLAS Passenger vessels of classes IV, V, VI and VIA of less
than 45 metres registered length will need to meet the requirements
of the Merchant Shipping (Bridge Visibility. Small Passenger
Ships) Regulations 2005.
Fishing Vessels - Wheelhouse visibility requirements for
UK Fishing Vessels are contained in MGN
314 (F) - Wheelhouse visibility onboard Fishing Vessels.
Paragrpah 1.6 covers visibility of shipside from the bridge wing.
IMO has provided unified interpretation (UI) of this requirement via Circular MSC.1/Circ. 1350/Rev.1.
This UI has been implemented by the International Association
of Classification Societies (IACS) since 1st January 2011.